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       Special Focus Research

  Black Americans

Only slightly more than 300 blacks were living in Iowa in the 1840s. Free blacks were discouraged, if not totally forbidden, from migrating to the state by a ruling in 1839, which stated that any black or "mulatto" must provide "a fair certificate of actual freedom under a seal of a judge and give bond of $500 as surety against becoming public charges" before being permitted to settle in Iowa. The black population in the state tripled, however, in 1865, most migrating from Missouri and Mississippi/Ohio river areas. Very few black histories exist in Iowa.


Native Americans
1781 Wife of a Fox warrior discovered lead deposits in the Iowa country
1788 Julien Dubuque, a fur trader, gained sanction from the Indians to work lead mines near current Dubuque.
1824 Half-Breed Tract established in current Lee County.
1825 Neutral lines established between Sioux and Sac/Fox Indians.
1830 Neutral ground established Sioux and Sac/Fox Indians
1832 Black Hawk War terminates in exchange for strips of land west of the Mississippi River (the Black Hawk Purchase); Winnebago tribe given part of neutral ground.
1833 Title to Black Hawk Purchase is transferred to US Government; Ottawa, Pottawattomie and Chippewa tribes given lands in current southwestern Iowa.
1834 Half-breeds given fee simple title to Half-Breed Tract by act of Congress.
1836 Sac and Fox Indians cede Keokuk's Reserve of the US.
1837 Sac and Fox Indians cede 1,250,000 acres of land, known as second Black Hawk Purchase to US.
1838 Chief Black Hawk dies at his home near the Des Moines
River in Davis County.
1842 Sac and Fox cede all remaining lands in Iowa.
1843 Sac and Fox vacate lands east of line passing north and south through the Red Rocks of Marion County.
1845 Sac and Fox withdraw from Iowa.
1846 Pottawattomie relinquish lands in western Iowa.
1848 Removal of Winnebago tribe begins.
1851 Sioux cede lands in northern Iowa.
1857 Spirit Lake Massacre: Sioux attack settlers & kill 30; small band of Sac and Fox return & buy 80 acres of land in Tama County; Members of these tribes still live on a semi-reservation north of the village of Tama.
1862 Blockhouses erected in northwestern Iowa for protection against the Sioux.
 

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