Only slightly more than 300 blacks were living in Iowa in the 1840s. Free blacks were
discouraged, if not totally
forbidden, from migrating to the state by a ruling in 1839, which stated that any black or
"mulatto" must provide "a fair certificate of actual freedom under a seal
of a judge and give bond of $500 as surety against becoming public charges" before
being permitted to settle in Iowa. The black population in the state tripled, however, in
1865, most migrating from Missouri and Mississippi/Ohio river areas. Very few black
histories exist in Iowa.
||Wife of a Fox warrior discovered lead deposits in the Iowa
||Julien Dubuque, a fur trader, gained sanction from the Indians
to work lead mines near current Dubuque.
||Half-Breed Tract established in current Lee County.
||Neutral lines established between Sioux and Sac/Fox Indians.
||Neutral ground established Sioux and Sac/Fox Indians
||Black Hawk War terminates in exchange for strips of land west
of the Mississippi River (the Black Hawk Purchase); Winnebago
tribe given part of neutral ground.
||Title to Black Hawk Purchase is transferred to US Government;
Ottawa, Pottawattomie and Chippewa tribes given lands in
current southwestern Iowa.
||Half-breeds given fee simple title to Half-Breed Tract by act of
||Sac and Fox Indians cede Keokuk's Reserve of the US.
||Sac and Fox Indians cede 1,250,000 acres of land, known as
second Black Hawk Purchase to US.
||Chief Black Hawk dies at his home near the Des Moines
River in Davis County.
||Sac and Fox cede all remaining lands in Iowa.
||Sac and Fox vacate lands east of line passing north and
south through the Red Rocks of Marion County.
||Sac and Fox withdraw from Iowa.
|| Pottawattomie relinquish lands in western Iowa.
||Removal of Winnebago tribe begins.
||Sioux cede lands in northern Iowa.
||Spirit Lake Massacre: Sioux attack settlers & kill 30;
small band of Sac and Fox return & buy 80 acres of
land in Tama County; Members of these tribes still live
on a semi-reservation north of the village of Tama.
||Blockhouses erected in northwestern Iowa for protection
against the Sioux.
All material copyright 1996-2006,
by the Iowa Genealogical Society (IGS),
except where attributed to previously copyrighted material. All rights reserved.
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